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the block cave mining method - uk essays,block caving is a large-scale underground mining method applicable to the extraction of low-grade, massive ore bodies. with the amount of literature available on block caving this report identifies the need to provide a simple understanding of the process. understanding a production process of a block cave mine is an important aspect before getting.cave tracker: safe and performing block cave mines,mine must operate. block caving relies on fragmentation and forces of gravity to ‘cave’ the fragmented ore to draw points built deep underground, from where it is collected and taken away for processing. mine operators cannot see what is happening in the fragmented body of ore, which means that behaviour of the ore when it flows cannot be.hydraulic fracturing & block caving systems | acim,while the concept of block caving as a mass mining process is not new, the benefits of cost and increased production makes it an attractive process. the method involves mining deep, large and low grade ore bodies whereby a large section of rock is undercut, creating an artificial cave that fills with its own debris as it collapses..cave tracker - mining3 - transforming mining,block caving relies on fragmentation and forces of gravity to ‘cave’ an underground orebody to draw points, from where it is collected and taken away for processing. monitoring the flow of the caved ore was only possible once markers, embedded in the orebody, exited at the draw points at the bottom..
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in this next era of cave mining, improved knowledge and incorporation of the governing physics and fundamentals of the associated caving process or phenomena will become even more important for cave design and performance prediction and, therefore, reliability. the paper starts by providing a snap shot of contemporary caving designs (and practices), highlighting achievements made by the cave mining industry since the introduction of mechanised caving,underground mining methods and equipment,1.6. longwall mining 1.7. sublevel caving 1.8. block caving 2. underground mining machinery glossary bibliography biographical sketches summary the first section gives an overview of underg round mining methods and practices as used commonly in underground mines, including classification of underground mining
block caving - controllable risks and fatal flaws block caving is the lowest cost underground mining method but it has relatively high risks and a high up-front capital and development cost. it has application to large, often lower-grade orebodies where high production,mining - wikipedia,environmental issues can include erosion, formation of sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water by chemicals from mining processes. in some cases, additional forest logging is done in the vicinity of mines to create space for the storage of
this section is focused on block caving method. block caving is a technique in which gravity is used in conjunction with internal rock stresses to fracture and break the rock mass into pieces that can be handled by miners. block refers to the mining layout in which the ore-body is divided into large sections of several thousand square meters.,empirical investigation and characterization of surface,as a mass mining method, block caving results in significant ground collapse and extensive surface deformations. yet despite having been in use for more than 100 years, there has been limited research conducted regarding the impact of caving on surface subsidence.
an overview of oyu tolgoi phase 2 mining plans and some of the issues and risks associated with block cave underground mining, international metal price uncertainty, project power supply, and impacts on water resources used by herders (satellite image of oyu tolgoi mine, november 2015, http://landsatlook.usgs.gov) prepared for,block caving | maclean engineering,the maclean ore flow suite for block caving (bulk mining) is what an underground mine needs to beat the challenges of ore flow blockages like drawpoint hang-ups and oversize that seriously impact productivity and increase overall mining costs. when caving is induced, competent ore bodies with coarse fragmentation and insufficient comminution can present large rocks that cause hang-ups in
caving mining techniques are experiencing a surge of interest, thanks to a combination of favourable metal prices, high forecast demand and the need to exploit deeper, more complex orebodies at the lowest cost possible.,block caving - groundtruthtrekking.org,contaminated water from the mine may enter the groundwater system, pollute aquifers, and resurface to cause problems elsewhere. from the miner’s perspective, however, the primary working hazard of block caving is that the undermined ore body may not collapse continuously.
fairly low mining cost (least of undergorund method). high recovery (up to 90% exculding dilution) no drilling and blasting cost as rock breaks entirely by caving. very good ventilation. highest production rate of underground methods. suitable for gravity draw. good health and safety for miners. disadvantages:-,block caving: a new mining method arises | geoengineer.org,the cost of block cave mining is about 1/10 of the correspondent cost of conventional methods. the production rates can reach 30,000 to 100,000 tons per day. moreover, drilling and blasting costs are far less, and there are no backfilling costs. another benefit of block caving is the large reduction in surface waste disposal needs.
the course covers advantages and disadvantages, basic elements of block caving, design issues, the undercut level, the extraction level, haulage and ventilation, safety issues, and economic issues. block caving is of growing interest to companies engaged in the exploitation of massive low grade ore deposits, because of its low cost and higher degree of mechanization for improved safety,types of underground mining method comparison,the ore can be kept freer of waste than in block caving. disadvantages: it is limited in application to certain ores. a large amount of development is required which must be kept ahead of the demand for ore. a large part of the ore must be shoveled. caving endangers surface and other ore deposits. there is some danger to the miners.
disadvantage 1.caving and subsidence occur on a large scale. 2.draw control is critical to success of the method. 3. slow, extensive, costly development. 4.,block caving strategic risks,compounding these risks is that large block caving projects are not immune from capital cost zblow outs. butcher (2003) suggests that design and execution problems can easily result in a blow out of capital in the region of 30%. another hurdle company executives need to consider before committing to a block caving project is the
abstract: over the last 20 years many companies have investigated the use of block caving to extract low grade orebodies at depth. despite the interest in these projects, few companies actually embark on the implementation of large scale caving due to the risk profiles.,stoping mining methods - 911 metallurgist,block caving is employed principally for mining low-grade ores where the inevitable loss of some ore and some dilution with capping and wall rock are permissible and where mining must be done on a large scale and at a lower cost than can be obtained by the use of supported-stope or other selective mining methods.
- with the repetitive nature of this mining method you can standardize all the mining activities • high amount of flexibility with production rates • because all of the mining activities are executed in or from relatively small openings, sublevel caving is one of the safest mining methods. disadvantages • high level of dilution • low recovery,sandra's cave mining handbook,one facet of block cave mining often insist on using those techniques in a totally different environment and this can lead to problems, each new lift or deposit must be fully assessed. one of the most important aspects of cave mining is draw control, but often management only pay lip service to it and this results in abuses down the line.
block cave mining can be expanded and the shapes are more likely to be irregular due to the ter- rain’s ruggedness. structural geology is important as faults, foliation, and/or the discontinuity,block caving archives - cave mining forum,cave mining, and in particular block-cave mining, stands at one end of the spectrum of mining method-related risks. it is not so much that the risks are greater, but rather that the ability of management to respond to variations in expected conditions is much less than with other mining methods.
the small footprint gravity and scraper block caving mines with boundary weakening, rail transport and shaft hoisting of the early to mid-twentieth century have been replaced by massive high lift panel caves using preconditioning of the ore, large load-haul-dump units, adjacent crushers and conveyors to surface.,new approach for rapid preparation of block caving mines,block and panel caving is one of the most suitable methods for exploitation of large massive ore bodies where a high rate of extraction is required. however, many authors have studied the rate of extraction and concluded that it may be limited by the ability to prepare mines at high rates.
the danger of block caving is that it removes much of the supporting rock from underneath the surface rock, often leading to subsidence, the gradual settling or sinking of the surface. block caving typically results in large scale subsidence, and potential risks to humans, wildlife, and water quality.,definition of block caving - mindat.org - mines, minerals,the term 'block caving' probably originated in the porphyry copper mines, where the area to be mined was divided into rectangular blocks that were mined in a checkerboard sequence with all the ore in a block being removed before an adjacent block was mined. this sequence of mining is no longer widely used.
of all the mine exploitation systems, block caving has the lowest cost, except for maybe open-pit mining or in-situ recovery. cut-and-fill mining a method of short-hole mining, cut-and-fill mining is used in irregular or steeply dipping ore zones, especially where the hanging wall limits the use of,wireless cave mining monitoring systems - elexon mining,our understanding of caving and ore flow mechanisms is in its infancy which effectively makes caving a ‘black box method’ – a bit like mining in the dark. when ore recovery is not performing as expected, this deviation from the mine plan increases risks. safety risks